Ibadhiyah is a distinct school of thought of Islam, neither Sunni nor Shi'ite, that emerged in the early Islamic period and remains today in small pockets of Africa and dominant in Oman.

"Ibadi Islam has played a pivotal role in the history of Islamic thought and practice, and continues to be an influential force in the contemporary Middle East and Africa."

Brannon Wheeler, author of “Mecca and Eden: Ritual, Relics, and Territory in Islam,” in his review of Valerie Hoffman's book "The Essentials of Ibadi Islam."

Ibadhiyah was founded by 'Abd Allah ibn-Ibad in Basra in the 680s AD as a moderate Khariji group opposed to armed rebellion and political assassination and willing to live in harmony with other Muslims.

In theology the Ibadhis reject a literal interpretation of simplistic anthropomorphic descriptions of God, denying the possibility of seeing God in this life or the afterlife.

There are Ibadhis also in other countries, such as Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, countries of East Africa, and even in China.